Will the European Union have an army? The return of the Franco-German alliance

“More than ever, Europe is facing huge challenges. Especially in times of crisis, our citizens must be able to recognize the value and benefits of being EU members. It is important to be able to guarantee internal security. This also implies an obligation to fight both the real threats and international Islamic terrorism in Europe”. These words are part of the Franco-German text presented on August 23 at the European Commission, in order to face the external and internal threats. A few days later, on September 11, at the eve of the Bratislava summit, another text was sent to the High Representative (HR) Federica Mogherini containing proposals to implement the Global Strategy of the European Union. The Global Strategy was presented during the first meeting without the United Kingdom, on June 28 in Brussels. After the referendum, it was clear that many balances should have been changed; however, a lot of people already speak about the Franco-German alliance, ready to take a leading role inside the European security and defense policy (ESDP). Firstly, this article will explain the content of the Lisbon Treaty’s articles which define the European common security and defense policy. Secondly, the path of the European security policy after Brexit will be presented. Finally, the objective consequences of this evolution will be analysed, in order to understand the implications of the Franco-German proposition.   

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The Brexit effects on European security and defense

On June 23, British voters chose to leave the European Union. This important referendum, colloquially termed Brexit, has sent shockwaves across Europe and the world. The victory of the Leave side, with 52 percent of the vote, versus 48 percent for Remain, is a rare and unexpected point. Neither the EU nor the United Kingdom will ever be the same. In this article the aim is to understand what may be the causes of Brexit on European security and defense (CSDP). At first, the theoretical approach will be considered, which tends to explain objectively the effects on European security policy. Secondly, the first reaction of the European Union following the referendum will be examined. Finally, the framework of the meeting in Bratislava will be presented, the informal meeting in which will meet for the first time the 27 EU countries.

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De la Stratégie Globale de sécurité aux Conclusions du Conseil. Le double jeu de l’UE
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De la Stratégie Globale de sécurité aux Conclusions du Conseil. Le double jeu de l’UE

En Juin 2015, la Haute Représentante de l’Union européenne pour les affaires étrangères et la politique de sécurité, Federica Mogherini, a présenté aux dirigeants européens son évaluation stratégique du contexte mondial. Ils lui ont demandé de préparer une stratégie globale de l’UE sur la politique étrangère et de sécurité pour guider les actions mondiales de l’Union européenne dans l’avenir. La Stratégie mondiale, présentée aux dirigeants européens le 28 juin 2016, lors du Sommet européen à Bruxelles, sera mise en place en étroite coopération avec les États membres, ainsi qu’avec les institutions de l’UE et la communauté des Affaires Etrangères. Premièrement, dans cet article, seront analysés les points principaux du nouveau document concernent la politique de défense et de sécurité; ensuite seront approfondis les enjeux liés à la crise migratoire et à la coopération avec l’OTAN ; enfin, à la lumière des conclusions du Conseil européen du 28 juin, seront pris en considération les possibles scenarios internationaux, avec une Union européenne qui après le Brexit veut apparaitre plus solide que jamais. (suite…)

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The European Power: operation Sophia in and within UN and NATO
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The European Power: operation Sophia in and within UN and NATO

On 6 June 2016, Federica Mogherini, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR), asked to adopt a resolution on authorising Operation Sophia to enforce the UN embargo on the high seas, off the coast of Libya, during her speech at the UN Security Council. A few days prior, NATO Foreign Ministers met in cooperation with the European Union (EU) in Brussels, where the HR underlined the importance of collaboration with NATO in the Aegean Sea, looking at ways in which EU could work together with the Alliance to support the Operation Sophia in the Central Mediterranean. This close collaboration with NATO, and the achievement of the Security Council resolution 2292 (14 June 2016) about the arms embargo in Libya, shows the EU strong impact inside the two international organisations (IOs). This article will provide an explication about the EU role inside the two IOs, how it can affect their policies, and what the EU will do in the Central Mediterranean on the high sea, off the coast of Libya. (suite…)

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Conclusions du Conseil européen, les visas et le statut des Tatars de Crimée turcs
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Conclusions du Conseil européen, les visas et le statut des Tatars de Crimée turcs

Interview MEP Antonio Panzeri – 2 Juin, 2016

L’interview qui suit porte sur trois questions clés: la question des visas pour les citoyens turcs, la condition des Tatars de Crimée et enfin les conclusions du Conseil européen du 23 mai 2016.

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Entretien avec le Député européen Antonio Panzeri : Questions en Syrie, sécurité en Europe et relations avec l’OTAN
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Entretien avec le Député européen Antonio Panzeri : Questions en Syrie, sécurité en Europe et relations avec l’OTAN

Le 23 Février 2016 a été une date importante pour la question de la crise syrienne. Ce jour-là, après un an de tentatives concrètes, les deux parties du conflit (les forces gouvernementales et la résistance) ont convenu d’un cessez-le-feu pour trouver une solution politique au conflit. Dans le même temps les deux puissances mondiales, les Etats-Unis et la Russie, ont également promis un effort pour assurer la trêve. Officiellement, le cessez-le-feu a commencé le 27 Février. (suite…)

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Quand Fayez el-Sarraj appelle,  l’Union européenne se mobilise : les nouvelles mesures en Libye
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Quand Fayez el-Sarraj appelle, l’Union européenne se mobilise : les nouvelles mesures en Libye

Le 9 Mai 2016, lors d’une visite à Tunis, le Ministre des Affaires étrangères italien, Paolo Gentiloni, avait annoncé une réunion internationale sur la Libye pour le 16 Mai. Cette réunion voulue par le ministre italien et par le secrétaire d’État américain John Kerry, a réuni les ministres des Affaires étrangers des principaux pays concernés par la question libyenne. Les pays participants, parmi lesquels la Libye et les cinq membres du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU ont voulu enrichir leur engagement pour éviter une nouvelle crise internationale liée à l’instabilité politique et à l’augmentation des flux migratoires dans la Méditerranéen centrale. Dans cet article la première partie sera consacrée à l’analyse du parcours qui a mené l’instauration du nouveau gouvernement de el-Sarraj, reconnu par la communauté internationale. Ensuite seront expliquées les mesures adoptées par l’UE et les causes de la demande d’aide de la part du gouvernement de Fayez el-Sarraj. Enfin, les résultats de la réunion et les mesures adoptées seront analysées. (suite…)

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NATO’s proportional concept in the Eastern borders: the Stoltenberg policy
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NATO’s proportional concept in the Eastern borders: the Stoltenberg policy

On April 20, 2016 the NATO-Russia Council meeting took place. This meeting was necessary because of the continuous offensive policies of Russia (mainly in Ukraine), but also because of the increasing tension along Eastern borders of the Atlantic Alliance. The Russian growing naval engagement in the Baltic region and in the Black Sea has caused NATO reaction, which has significantly increased its presence in the Eastern borders during the last year. For this reason, NATO and Russia strongly requested a Council meeting on April 20 in Brussels. The aim of this meeting was to both discuss the Ukrainian issue concerning the illegal annexation by Russia of the Crimea, and transparency between the two parties in order to reduce the risk of a conflict. Since 2010, NATO has put in place a new strategy based on collective security, conflict prevention and cooperation with neighbours countries in order to neutralize any type of threat for its member countries. This article initially will examine the post-Cold War NATO’s key strategies, stressing out its « new » principles to deal with the threats of a multipolar world. Then, we will examine NATO reactions against the offensive policy of Russia and the conclusions of the meeting of 20 April. Finally, we will consider NATO policies founded on the increasing military presence along the Eastern border of the Alliance, highlighting the current political-military situation based on the concept of “action-reaction”.

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If we close a border another one is still opened Not only Turkey – the crisis in the Central Mediterranean
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If we close a border another one is still opened Not only Turkey – the crisis in the Central Mediterranean

On 17 December 2015, in Skhirat, Morocco, the representatives of the Congress of Tripoli and of Tobruk Chamber signed an agreement for the formation of the Government of National Accord, under the aegis of the United Nations. After the fall of Muammar Gaddafi, two fundamental consequences resulted from political instability in Libya: the spread of the groups belonging to the Islamic State and the increase of migrant flows in the central Mediterranean. The International Organization for Migration estimates that 6,021 migrants and refugees arrived in Italy since 14 February 2016. The Organization also states that these numbers will increase during the coming days. In recent times, much attention has been devoted to the migration crisis in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, but the migration flows in central Mediterranean raise concerns for the European Union again. This article aims to analyze the European policies in the central Mediterranean, the relations with the Libyan government, and the Council conclusions of 18 and 19 April 2016. (suite…)

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NATO-Russia Council: on 20 April the new D-day for the international equilibrium
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NATO-Russia Council: on 20 April the new D-day for the international equilibrium

The next meeting of NATO-Russia Council at Ambassadorial level will take place on Wednesday, 20 April, as announced officially by NATO communication officer. On 12 April it has been decided the date of D-day for the world equilibrium. Since 2014, the international scenario has been marked by two major events: the proclamation of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, and the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Russia’s policy in Ukraine and its support for the Bashar al-Assad government has worsened the relations with the Atlantic Alliance, which promptly adopted a policy based on «action-reaction» principle. Moreover, the degeneration of the Ukrainian conflict, the ISIL expansion, political tensions between Russia and Turkey (a NATO member state), the migratory crisis and the issue of security in Afghanistan, have been permanently taken in consideration by NATO, which for two years has pursued to maintain political relations with Russia. Now, more than ever, NATO wants a new meeting to avoid any kind of military degeneration. This article will examine the nature of the relations between NATO and Russia in the last two years, and what will be the main issues discussed during the summit scheduled for late April 2016. (suite…)

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