1) January 2016 – March 2019 : three years of negotiations
One year before Brexit, eurosceptics began to grow in power and so David Cameron First Minister negotiated with European Union to obtain concessions. In counterpart, he promised to do campaign in favor of Remain. One time agreement was obtained, Cameron did campaign in favor of Remain. But, 23th of June in 2016 with 52% of voices, people voted in favor of Leave, so for the exit of European Union.
Especially, British and Welsh voted in favor of Leave and old people ( more than 65 years ). After this referendum, British Parliament voted to engage the article 50 of the Treaty on European Union ( TEU ). That is to say, the engagement of withdrawal procedure. After this step is finished, engagement of the article 50 of the Treaty on European Union was notified to the European Union the 29 of March in 2017. A period of two years was previous to negotiate and execute the withdrawal. The Brexit ( Britain and exit ) was engaged.
In the side of European Union, European Council gave guidelines and authorized negotiations engaged by European Commission. Michel Barnier was designed like negotiator in chief of Brexit and a team » Task Force Fifty » was created. Negotiations were conducted with Theresa May, successor of David Cameron.
During one year and a half, from May 2017 at december 2017, various answers and subjects are treated : free exchange, taxes, entrance and exit of the territory.. all in a texte of 600 articles : the withdrawal agreement.
The document after the agreement of 27 was transmitted to British Parliament to be voted because article 50 of the TEU provides that the text ‘’ has to be voted in accordance with its own constitutional requirements ‘’.
2) From the first reject to April 2019
The 15th of January in 2019, British Parliament rejected for the first time the agreement negotiated by Theresa may and Union. A second defeat was on March and like said the famous proverb ‘’ never two without three ‘’, a third agreement was given to Westminster. But, too a defeat. In fact, British parliament rejected the agreement. Meanwhile, the 21th March in 2019, European Council authorized a report previously initially the 29 of March in 2019.
Two options are now possible : an approbation to the agreement by British parliament and a exit the 22th of may or a non-approbation to the agreement by British parliament and a exit the 12th of april.
Several days before the deadline, 5th of April, Theresa May sent a letter to Donald Tusk to obtain a new report until 30th of June. So, EU council president convocated an exceptional submit with all presidents of member states to find a solution to the issue of Brexit. After negotiations, a new report of Brexit was agreed until 31th of October in 2019. In counterpart, Theresa May engaged her to vote an agreement as soon as possible.
3) Major issues
The delayed withdrawal driven interrogations and one in particular. In fact, european elections are coming soon and surely, UK will be still in Union.
But, how imagine that UK in a short time will can organize elections ? Also, it is anti-democratic no ?
Besides, withdrawal agreement has to be adopted to the 31th October, 2019 because if there is no agreement, it will be the same and UK will become a third state and it will be necessary to manage futures relations with this country.
Then, there is an another major issue : Ireland’s border. Because, South Ireland will stay in European Union but the Nord will leave Union with UK. This subject will be a lot negotiated.
So, nexts weeks will be determinant for Brexit and European Union and more issues linked to it.
For further informations :
BBC Website » What’s happens next ?, 11 april 2019 : https://www.bbc.com/news/politics/uk_leaves_the_eu
Euronews Website » A new report of Brexit », 12 april 2019 : https://fr.euronews.com/european-affairs/infos-europeenes